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Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new maritime Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Somalia.
Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, as a republic replaced the Qing dynasty.
The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China.
The 13th century brought the Mongol conquest of China.
Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world.
Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.
The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581.By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state.King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty.Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times.
In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin unified core China and established the first Chinese dynasty.
The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.