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MMD is the strategy of seeking diverse diplomatic relations with major powers in order to increase a state's level of autonomy vis-à-vis the hegemon (the United States).
In June, Deputy Crown Prince/Defense Minister Mohammed bin Salman, a son of the king, visited Moscow to sign multiple bilateral cooperation agreements on subjects ranging from oil and the military to nuclear power and space exploration.
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh received Saudi Arabia's minister of commerce and industry, Tawfiq Al-Rabiah, in New Delhi in January.
Just as energy security is integral to the national security of oil-importing states, for Saudi Arabia safeguarding demand for its oil ("demand security") is integral to its national and, more specifically, regime security.
Saudi Arabia's Look-East diplomacy came to the fore during the time of the previous king, Abdullah (2005—15).
In January 2006, Abdullah chose Beijing and New Delhi as his first two destinations outside the Middle East region after his accession to the throne the previous summer.
In 2014, 84 percent of Japan's oil imports came from the Gulf.
The top five suppliers were Saudi Arabia (34 percent), the United Arab Emirates (24 percent), Qatar (11 percent), Russia (8 percent) and Kuwait (7 percent).
With 89 percent of its state revenues coming from the oil sector (2013), the maintenance of reciprocal and interdependent relationships with major oil-importing states has been one of the most important objectives of Saudi Arabia's foreign policy.